Deep learning accelerators such as GPUs, FPGAs, and more not too long ago TPUs. Conceived by Harvard physics professor Howard Aiken, and designed and built by IBM, the Harvard Mark 1 is a room-sized, relay-primarily based calculator. The machine had a fifty-foot long camshaft running the length of machine that synchronized the machine’s hundreds of component elements and used three,500 relays. The Mark 1 produced mathematical tables but was soon outmoded by digital stored-program computer systems.