Deep studying accelerators such as GPUs, FPGAs, and more lately TPUs. Quantum computers, however, use qubits, which are usually subatomic particles corresponding to electrons or photons. Producing and managing qubits is a scientific and engineering challenge. Some firms, resembling IBM, Google, and Rigetti Computing, use superconducting circuits cooled to temperatures colder than deep space. Others, like IonQ, lure individual atoms in electromagnetic fields on a silicon chip in ultra-excessive-vacuum chambers. In each instances, the goal is to isolate the qubits in a managed quantum state.