Deep learning accelerators akin to GPUs, FPGAs, and more not too long ago TPUs. The 1401 mainframe, the primary in the series, replaces earlier vacuum tube expertise with smaller, more reliable transistors. Demand referred to as for greater than 12,000 of the 1401 computer systems, and the machineĀ“s success made a robust case for using normal-purpose computers somewhat than specialized techniques. By the mid-Nineteen Sixties, almost half of all computer systems on this planet were IBM 1401s.